INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 195
as well as in Balti (in Western Tibet) and in Afghanistan.
3. Abies Smifhiana, which also inhabits all parts of the Hima-
laya, extending into Afghanistan* 4. A. Brunoniana, which
is not found further west than the upper'part of the valley
of the Kali, in Eastern Kumaon. 5. Picea Webbiana, the
most alpine of all the species which ranges from Bhotan to -
Kashmir: it covers the mountains, between 8000 and 12,000
feet, with a sombre forest, appearing equally at home in
the humid climate of Sikkim and on the arid mountains of
Tipper Kiiiawar. 6. Juniperus recurva. 7. J. Wallichiana.
8. J. excelsa. 9. Taoeus baccata. The two first of the junipers,
and the yew, ar§ found in all parts of the Himalaya.
Two species only are confined to the Eastern Himalaya,
namely, Larise Grijfithii and Podocarpus macrophylla; but
Pinus Sinensis, so common in Khasia, will perhaps .prove to
be a native of Eastern Bhotan. The "Western Himalaya has
four species which are not found in Nipal or the Eastern
Himalaya. These are—1. Pmus Gerardiana, a native of
Afghanistan, of Hasora, north of Kashmir, and of the 'drier
valleys of the Himalaya as far .as the Satlej. 2. Cedrus
Debdara, which is scarcely indigenous in Eastern Kumaon,
and r%nges from Garhwal to Afghanistan. The deodar is
closely Dallied to,-if not identical with the cedar of Lebanon,
whifch extends from Syria and the Taurus to the Atlas moun-
tains. 3. Cupressus toru.losa, which is probably the wild state
of the common cypress; it is a rare plant in the Himalaya,
but 'is found at Niti, near Simla, and at Naini Tal, and niay
perl&ps occur in Western Nipal, 4. Juniperus communis,
found in all the drier parts of the chain from Afghanistan
and Kashmir to Kumaon.
. There is no abrupt transition from the flora of the outer
temperate Himalaya to that of the interior. The amount of
rain-fall diminishes very gradually as we ascend the great val-
leys, and the diminution of humidity is accompanied by the
appearance of new types of vegetation. This transition is '
moft observable in the Satlej and Chcnab valleys, which tic so